What Is Contrary to Common Law
After partition, India maintained its common law system.  Much of contemporary Indian law shows considerable European and American influence. The legislation, which was first introduced by the British, is still in force today in an amended form. During the drafting of the Indian Constitution, the laws of Ireland, the United States, Great Britain and France were synthesized to produce a refined set of Indian laws. Indian laws are also in line with the United Nations guidelines on human rights and environmental law. Some international trade laws, such as those relating to intellectual property, are also enforced in India. After partition, Pakistan maintained its common law system.  One of the most important reforms of the late 19th and early 20th centuries was the abolition of common law requirements.  A plaintiff may initiate proceedings by giving the respondent “a brief and clear account” of the facts that constitute an alleged injustice.
 This reform shifted the courts` attention from the technical examination of words to a more rational examination of the facts and opened up access to justice much more broadly.  According to Louisiana`s codified system, the Louisiana Civil Code, private law — that is, substantive law between parties to the private sector — is based on continental European legal principles with some common law influences. These principles are ultimately derived from Roman law, which was transferred by French law and Spanish law, since the current territory of the state intersects with the territory of North America, which was colonized by Spain and France. Contrary to popular belief, the Louisiana Code does not derive directly from the Napoleonic Code, as promulgated in 1804, a year after the Louisiana Purchase. However, the two codes are similar in many ways due to common roots. In 1938, the U.S. Supreme Court was upheld in Erie Railroad Co. v. Tompkins 304 U.S.
64, 78 (1938), setting aside earlier precedents, and ruling that “there is no general customary federal law, according to which federal courts were treated only as interstitial interpreters of laws originating in other countries. Z.B. Texas Industries v. Radcliff, 451 U.S. 630 (1981) (Without explicit legal authority, federal courts cannot create rules of intuitive justice, for example, a right to contributions from co-conspirators). After 1938, federal courts that rule on matters that arise under state law were required to refer the interpretation of state laws to state courts or to justify what the highest court of a state would decide if it faced the problem, or to certify the matter to the highest court of the state for resolution. The next definitive historical treatise on the common law was Commentaries on the Laws of England, written by Sir William Blackstone and first published in 1765-1769. Since 1979, a facsimile edition of this first edition has been available in four paper volumes. Today it has been replaced in the English part of the United Kingdom by Halsbury`s Laws of England, which covers both general and statutory English law. Ghana follows the English common law tradition, inherited by the British during their colonization. Therefore, Ghana`s laws are, for the most part, a modified version of the imported law, continually adapting to the country`s changing socio-economic and political realities.  The Bond of 1844 marked the time when the people of Ghana (then the Gold Coast) ceded their independence to the British and transferred authority to the British judiciary.
Later, the Supreme Court Order of 1876 officially introduced British law, whether common law or legal law, to the Gold Coast.  Section 14 of the Regulations formalized the application of the common law tradition in the country. Examples of common law in the United States replaced by a codified statute or rule include criminal law (since 1812, United States. Federal courts and most, but not all, states have ruled that criminal law must be enshrined in law if the public is to be informed fairly), commercial law (the Unified Commercial Code in the early 1960s), and procedures (the Federal Rules of Civil Procedure in the 1930s and the Federal Rules of Evidence in the 1970s). Note, however, that the act sets out the general principles in all cases, but the common law interstitial process determines the scope and application of the law. Ghana did not abolish the common law system inherited from the British after independence, and today it is enshrined in the country`s 1992 constitution. Chapter Four of the Ghanaian Constitution, entitled “The Laws of Ghana”, contains in Article 11(1) the list of laws in force in the State. This includes (a) the Constitution; (b) Decrees issued by or under the authority of the Parliament established by the Constitution; (c) orders, rules and regulations made by a person or authority under a power conferred by the Constitution; (d) applicable law; and (e) the common law.  Thus, Ghana`s modern constitution, like its predecessor, adopted English customary law by anchoring it in its provisions. The doctrine of judicial primacy, based on the principle of stare decisis as applied in England and other common law countries, also applies to Ghana. The term common law has many connotations. The first three listed here are the most common uses within the legal community.
Other connotations from past centuries can sometimes be seen and are sometimes heard in everyday language. In addition, there are several historical (but now archaic) uses of the term that, although no longer relevant, provide a substantive context that helps to understand the meaning of the common law today. Romano-Dutch common law is a bi-legal or mixed legal system similar to the common law system in Scotland and Louisiana. Romano-Dutch common law courts include Botswana, Lesotho, Namibia, South Africa, Swaziland, Sri Lanka and Zimbabwe. Many of these jurisdictions recognize customary law and, in some, as . B South Africa, the Constitution requires that the common law be developed in accordance with the Bill of Rights. Romano-Dutch customary law is a further development of Romano-Dutch law by the courts of the Romano-Dutch common law courts. During the Napoleonic Wars, the Kingdom of the Netherlands adopted the French Civil Code in 1809, but the Dutch colonies of the Cape of Good Hope and Sri Lanka, then called Ceylon, were seized by the British to prevent them from being used as bases by the French Navy. The system was developed by the courts and spread with the expansion of the British colonies into southern Africa. Romano-Dutch customary law is based on the legal principles set forth in Roman law sources such as the Institutes and The Digest of Justinian, as well as on the writings of 17th century Dutch jurists such as Grotius and Voet. In practice, the majority of decisions are based on recent precedents. For example, criminal laws in most U.S.
states are primarily a codification of pre-existing customary law. (Codification is the process of passing a law that brings together and reformulates pre-existing law in a single document – if that pre-existing law is customary law, customary law remains relevant to the interpretation of those laws.) Based on this assumption, modern laws often leave a number of fine terms and distinctions unremarked – for example, a statute might be very short and not leave the exact definition of terms specified, assuming that these fine distinctions will in the future be made by the courts on the basis of what they then understand as the already existing common law, would be resolved. (For this reason, many modern American law schools teach the common law of crime as it existed in England in 1789, as this centuries-old English common law is a necessary basis for the interpretation of modern criminal laws.) The form of reasoning used in common law is called casuistry or case-based thinking. .